Ptychadena bibroni (Hallowell, 1845)
Original Published Description:
Broad-banded Grass Frog (English)
This species ranges widely from Senegal and Gambia, east to northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (Garamba National Park). There appear to be no records from Guinea-Bissau and Sudan, but it presumably occurs in these countries (Rödel et al. 2004).
The specific epithet bibroni likely refers to the French zoologist Gabriel Bibron.
The species identified as Ptychadena bibroni in several publications is in fact Ptychadena pujoli (see Lamotte and Ohler (1997) for details; Rödel et al. 2004).
The head of the holotype is 15.9 mm long (7.5 lines; Hallowell 1845) and 14.8 mm wide (7 lines; Hallowell 1845). Its snout-vent length is 33.9 mm (1 inch 4 lines; Hallowell 1845). The forelimbs are 27.5 mm long (1 inch 1 line; Hallowell 1845), and the hindlimbs are 86.8 mm long (3 inches 5 lines; Hallowell 1845).
The following is from the original description by Hallowell (1845):
The head is large, triangular, slightly convex dorsally, and truncated anteriorly. The nostrils are distinct and situated nearer to the snout than to the orbit. The tympanum is very distinct, circular, and bronze in color with a dark point in the center. The eyes are very large but not remarkably prominent. The tongue is large, cordiform, and notched posteriorly; it also bears a slight indentation at its point. The opening of the mouth is large. The upper jaw bears numerous, finely pointed teeth of approximately equal size. There are seven or eight palatine teeth on each side, situated on a line with the anterior margin of the posterior nares, which are large. The eustachian foramina are very distinct. The body and limbs are slender. The webbing on the toes extends as far as the distal extremity of the antepenultimate phalanx, except on the fourth toe which is much longer than the third or fifth toes, which are approximately equal in length. Distinct subarticular tubercles are present. The skin is smooth with numerous longitudinal dorsal folds. No glands or pores are visible on any part of the body.
The dorsum is grayish, with numerous dark blotches on the head and back. A band of white extends from the tip of the snout to the extremity of the body. This band is very narrow along the sacrum but much broader on the body and head, where it occupies the whole of the space between the orbits. The throat, chin, and underside are white.
Habitat and Ecology
It is most common in humid wooded savannas, but it is also present in dry savannas and disturbed areas in forest zone (farm bush). A prime example of specific habitat type is near surface waters within the West Sudanian savanna ecoregion (Hogan. 2013)
This species is widespread and abundant (Rödel et al. 2004).
Populations of this species are stable (Rödel et al. 2004).
It breeds in small, stagnant temporary pools (Rödel et al. 2004).
IUCN Red List Category and Justification of Conservation Status
The IUCN Red List (2004) categorizes this species as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining to qualify for listing in a more threatened category (Rödel et al. 2004).
Ptychadena bibroni is an adaptable species not facing any significant threats (Rödel et al. 2004).
Conservation Actions and Management
This species occurs in several protected areas (Rödel et al. 2004).
In Burkino Faso and Nigeria, K. fusca is one of many frog species that are traded; in Burkino Faso it is among the top five most consumed frog species, as a source of animal protein. Because villagers are employed to catch and prepare frogs, and because they are an "important international trading item" frogs are an integral part of the economy in areas with large frog populations. Aside from their value as an essential food source, frogs and, more commonly, toads may also be used for cultural reasons and as traditional medicine in areas where Western medicine is not available. (Mohneke, 2010)
- Rana Bibroni Hallowell, 1845 (synonym)
- Rana (Ptychadena) bibroni — De Witte, 1921 (synonym)
- Rana (Ptychadena) maccarthyensis Andersson, 1937 (synonym)
- Ptychadena bibroni — Laurent, 1954 (synonym)
- Ptychadena bibroni — Guibé and Lamotte, 1957 (synonym)
- Rana (Ptychadena) maccarthyensis — Guibé and Lamotte, 1957 (synonym)
- Ptychadena maccarthyensis — Schiøtz, 1963 (synonym)
- Ptychadena mossambica maccarthyensis — Böhme, 1978 (synonym)
- Ptychadena mascareniensis bibroni — Perret, 1979 (synonym)
- Ptychadena (Ptychadena) maccarthyensis — Dubois, 1992 (synonym)