Phrynomantis annectens

Phrynomantis annectens Werner, 1910

Original Published Description:

Werner, F. (1910).  Reptilia et Amphibia. Denkschriften. Medicinisch-naturwissenschaftliche Gesellschaft zu Jena. 16, 279-370.

Common Names

Marbled Rubber Frog (English), Red-spotted Frog (English), Red-spotted Namibia Frog (English), Red Marbled Frog (English), Cape Snake-necked Frog (English)

Languages: English

Overview

Summary

The Marbled rubber frog (Phrynomantis annectens) is one of the few native amphibians to the Namib Desert, who survives by finding deeper water pools in inselbergs and other rocky formations. This anuran ranges southward to the Nama and Succulent Karoo areas; northward to the Kaokoveld Desert and Angola mopane woodlands; and eastward to the Kalahari xeric savanna and Namibian savanna woodlands. (WWF & Hogan. 2012)

Author(s): Hogan, C. Michael
Rights holder(s): Hogan, C. Michael

Distribution

P. annectens is endemic to the larger Namib region, from Angola southward through western Namibia, reaching South Africa in the extreme northern parts of Northern Cape Province (Text from Minter et al., 2004, © SI/MAB Biodiversity Program).

Author(s): Channing, A.
Rights holder(s): Channing, A.

Ecology

Habitat and Ecology

The average annual rainfall in this region is <60 mm (Text from Minter et al., 2004, © SI/MAB Biodiversity Program).

Author(s): Channing, A.
Rights holder(s): Channing, A.

Associations

Predators of the adults have not been recorded, but dragonfly nymphs are known to prey on the tadpoles (Text from Minter et al., 2004, © SI/MAB Biodiversity Program).

Author(s): Channing, A.
Rights holder(s): Channing, A.

Life History

Reproduction

Channing (1976, 2001) Breeding takes place immediately after the first rains of spring or summer. Males call from the edges of small pools formed by the runoff from sheets of rock, or in the deeper rock pools remaining in drainages after the rains. Females lay 80–100 eggs in groups of 2–8 and attach them to submerged rock surfaces or vegetation (Minter et al., 2004, © SI/MAB Biodiversity Program).

Author(s): Channing, A.
Rights holder(s): Channing, A.

Metamorphosis

Development is quickly and free swimming tadpoles hatch within 18–36 hours. Older tadpoles are large and transparent with flattened heads and conspicuous fins, flecked with silver and gold. They are gregarious, forming schools that hang in the water column and filter out unicellular algae and diatoms (Channing 2001). The tadpole stage lasts at least eight weeks before metamorphosis is completed. During the dry season the adults aestivate in deep rock cracks (Text from Minter et al., 2004, © SI/MAB Biodiversity Program).

Author(s): Channing, A.
Rights holder(s): Channing, A.

Conservation

IUCN Red List Category and Justification of Conservation Status

The distribution of P. annectens is mainly extralimital and it occurs in many protected areas in Namibia and Angola. In South Africa the habitat occupied by P. annectens is not heavily exploited, hence the species is not classified as threatened. However, quarrying and mining lead to the pollution of surface water by fuels and lubricants used to run and maintain heavy machinery, and this will affect local populations (Text from Minter et al., 2004, © SI/MAB Biodiversity Program).

Author(s): Channing, A.
Rights holder(s): Channing, A.

Taxonomy

  • Phrynomantis nasuta Methuen and Hewitt, 1913 (synonym)
  • Hoplophryne marmorata Ahl, 1934 (synonym)
  • Ctenophryne marmorata Ahl, 1935 (synonym)
  • Phrynomerus annectens — Parker, 1936 (synonym)
  • Phrynomantis annectens — Dubois, 1988 (synonym)
  • Phrynomantis annectans — Bauer and Branch, 2001 (synonym)

References

Carruthers, V. (2001).  Frogs and frogging in Southern Africa.
Channing, A. (1976).  Histories of frogs in the Namib Desert. Zoologica Africana . 299-312.
Channing, A. (2001).  Amphibians of Central and Southern Africa. Comstock books in herpetology. x, 470 p., [24] p. of plates. Ithaca, N.Y.: Comstock Pub. Associates.
Channing, A., & Minter L. (2004).  Phrynomantis annectens. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2.. 2012,
World Wildlife Fund, & Hogan C. M. (2010).  Namib Desert. (McGinleyM., Ed.).2012, Washington DC: Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science & the Environment .
World Wildlife Fund, & Hogan C.M. (2012).  Angolan mopane woodlands. Washington DC: Encyclopedia of Earth, National Council for Science & Environment.