Hyperolius marmoratus

Hyperolius marmoratus Rapp, 1842

Original Published Description:

v. Rapp, W. (1842).  Neue Batrachier. Archiv für Naturgeschichte. Berlin. 8, 289-291.

Common Names

Ahl's African Reed Frog (English), Variegated Rush Frog (English), Striped Rush Frog (Central Khmer), Striped Reed Frog (English), Sangeve Reed Frog (English), Marbled Reed Frog (English), Spotted Tree Frog (English), Painted Reed Frog (English), White-lipped Reed Frog (English), Marbled Rush Frog (English), Aposematic Reed Frog (English), Black and White Striped Reed Frog (English)

Languages: English

Overview

Distribution

H. marmoratus is distributed across most of sub- Saharan Africa (Text from Minter et al., 2004, © SI/MAB Biodiversity Program).

Author(s): Bishop, P.J.
Rights holder(s): Bishop, P.J.

Description

Morphology

There are many subspecies of H. marmoratus which are distinguished from one another by differences in dorsal colour patterns (Text from Minter et al., 2004, © SI/MAB Biodiversity Program).

Author(s): Bishop, P.J.
Rights holder(s): Bishop, P.J.

Ecology

Habitat and Ecology

H. marmoratus inhabits a variety of vegetation types within the Savanna, Grassland and Forest biomes. It is a widespread and abundant species along the coast and at low altitudes (Text from Minter et al., 2004, © SI/MAB Biodiversity Program).

Author(s): Bishop, P.J.
Rights holder(s): Bishop, P.J.

Associations

Channing (2001) found that the predators of H. marmoratus  include various birds, snakes, young crocodiles, terrapins, spiders and other frogs, while prey consists mainly of insects (Text from Minter et al., 2004, © SI/MAB Biodiversity Program).

Author(s): Bishop, P.J.
Rights holder(s): Bishop, P.J.

Life History

Reproduction

Although males will call after rain at any time of the year, breeding normally takes place October–February. H. marmoratus utilizes a wide variety of breeding sites, ranging from temporary ponds, pans and vleis, to permanent bodies of water such as dams, marshes, reedbeds, sluggish rivers and streams. Once paired H. marmoratus spends several hours in axillary amplexus, after which the eggs are laid in water. Females have been observed to lay more than one clutch of eggs per season with a month-long interval between layings (Text from Minter et al., 2004, © SI/MAB Biodiversity Program).

Author(s): Bishop, P.J.
Rights holder(s): Bishop, P.J.

Advertisement Call

This species has a loud, distinctive call and forms large choruses that are active for an extended period during the breeding season. When calling at low altitudes male inhibit temperatures <16°C, while at higher altitudes breeding has been observed at temperatures <10°C (pers. obs.). Males will call from trees, grasses, bushes, floating vegetation or even bare soil at the water’s edge (Text from Minter et al., 2004, © SI/MAB Biodiversity Program).

Author(s): Bishop, P.J.
Rights holder(s): Bishop, P.J.

Metamorphosis

Tadpoles hatch within five days and metamorphosis takes 6–8 weeks (Pienaar et al. 1967). Males reach sexual maturity at approximately one year (Text from Minter et al., 2004, © SI/MAB Biodiversity Program).

Author(s): Bishop, P.J.
Rights holder(s): Bishop, P.J.

Conservation

IUCN Red List Category and Justification of Conservation Status

H. marmoratus is widespread and locally abundant, and populations often consist of hundreds or even thousands of individuals. The major threat to this species is habitat loss through drainage of wetlands and afforestation (Text from Minter et al., 2004, © SI/MAB Biodiversity Program).

Author(s): Bishop, P.J.
Rights holder(s): Bishop, P.J.

Taxonomy

  • Hyperolius verrucosus Smith, 1849 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius taeniatus Peters, 1854 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius marmoratus — Günther, 1859 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius sugillatus Cope, 1862 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius citrinus Günther, 1864 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius granulosus Peters, 1867 (synonym)
  • Rappia taeniata — Günther, 1869 (synonym)
  • Rappia insignis — Günther, 1869 (synonym)
  • Rappia citrina — Günther, 1869 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius variegatus Peters, 1882 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius vermiculatus Peters, 1882 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius taeniatus — Peters, 1882 (synonym)
  • Rappia marmorata — Boulenger, 1882 (synonym)
  • Rappia granulosa — Boulenger, 1883 (synonym)
  • Rappia marginata — Boulenger, 1883 (synonym)
  • Rappia taeniata — Boulenger, 1883 (synonym)
  • Rappia variegata — Boulenger, 1883 (synonym)
  • Rappia striolata — Boulenger, 1883 (synonym)
  • Rappia vermicularis — Boulenger, 1883 (synonym)
  • Rappia marmorata var. parallela — Boettger, 1888 (synonym)
  • Rappia vermiculata Pfeffer, 1893 (synonym)
  • Rappia plicifera Bocage, 1893 (synonym)
  • Rappia marmorata var. marginata — Bocage, 1895 (synonym)
  • Rappia toulsonii — Bocage, 1895 (synonym)
  • Rappia vermiculata — Tornier, 1896 (synonym)
  • Rappia densereticulatae Tornier, 1896 (synonym)
  • Rappia vermiculata — Tornier, 1896 (synonym)
  • Rappia rhodoscelis Boulenger, 1901 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius platyrhinus — Noble, 1924 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius pliciferus — Noble, 1924 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius vermiculatus — Noble, 1924 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius symetricus — Noble, 1924 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius marmoratus — Noble, 1924 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius platyrhinus — Noble, 1924 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius rhodoscelis — Noble, 1924 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius marmoratus marmoratus — FitzSimons, 1930 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius marmoratus pondoensis FitzSimons, 1930 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius nossibeensis Ahl, 1930 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius albifrons Ahl, 1931 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius decoratus Ahl, 1931 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius dermatus Ahl, 1931 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius vermicularis Ahl, 1931 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius microstictus Ahl, 1931 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius breviceps Ahl, 1931 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius rhodoscelis — Ahl, 1931 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius nyassae Ahl, 1931 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius asper Ahl, 1931 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius platyrhinus — Ahl, 1931 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius fuelleborni Ahl, 1931 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius guttolineatus Ahl, 1931 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius marungaensis Ahl, 1931 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius symetricus — Ahl, 1931 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius marmoratus verrucosus Hewitt, 1937 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius latirostris Laurent, 1943 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius lestagei Laurent, 1943 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius marmoratus kandoensis Laurent, 1943 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius fuliginosus Laurent, 1943 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius marmoratus taeniatus — Laurent, 1951 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius marmoratus insignis — Laurent, 1951 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius marmoratus campylogrammus Laurent, 1951 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius marmoratus aposematicus Laurent, 1951 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius marmoratus albifrons — Laurent, 1952 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius marmoratus straeleni — Laurent, 1952 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius marmoratus latirostris — Laurent, 1952 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius marmoratus lestagei — Laurent, 1952 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius marmoratus fuliginosus — Laurent, 1952 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius marmoratus rhodoscelis — Laurent, 1952 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius marmoratus guttatolineatus — Laurent, 1952 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius marmoratus albolabris — Laurent, 1952 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius marmoratus vermiculatus — Laurent, 1952 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius marmoratus marungaensis — Laurent, 1952 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius marmoratus nyassae — Laurent, 1952 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius marmoratus decoratus — Laurent, 1952 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius marmoratus epheboides Laurent, 1957 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius marmoratus mafianus Laurent, 1961 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius marmoratus alborufus Laurent, 1964 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius marmoratus verrucosus — Poynton, 1964 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius aposematicus — Poynton, 1964 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius viridiflavus taeniatus — Stevens, 1974 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius parallelus alborufus — Schiøtz, 1975 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius viridiflavus nyassae — Schiøtz, 1975 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius parallelus aposematicus — Schiøtz, 1975 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius viridiflavus rhodoscelis — Schiøtz, 1975 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius marginatus alborufus — Laurent, 1976 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius marginatus aposematicus — Laurent, 1976 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius marginatus rhodoscelis — Laurent, 1976 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius marginatus nyassae — Laurent, 1976 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius parallelus toulsonii — Perret, 1976 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius parallelus pliciferus — Perret, 1976 (synonym)
  • Heterixalus nossibeensis — Drewes, 1984 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius marmoratus alborufus — Poynton and Broadley, 1987 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius marmoratus aposematicus — Poynton and Broadley, 1987 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius fumosus Pickersgill, 2007 (synonym)
  • Hyperolius alborufus — Pickersgill, 2007 (synonym)

References

Günther, A. C. L. G. (1864).  Report on a collection of reptiles and fishes made by Dr. Kirk in the Zambesi and Nyassa regions. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 1864, 303-314.
 
Poynton, J. C. (1991).  Amphibians of southeastern Tanzania, with special reference to Stephopaedes and Mertensophryne (Bufonidae). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 152(8), 451-473.
 
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