Amietophrynus pardalis

Amietophrynus pardalis (Hewitt, 1935)

Original Published Description:

Hewitt, J. (1935).  Some new forms of batrachians and reptiles from South Africa. Record of the Albany Museum. Grahamstown. 4, 283-357.

Common Names

Snoring Toad (English), Leopard Toad (English), August Toad (English), Gleniffer Toad (English), Eastern Leopard Toad (English)

Languages: English

Overview

Distribution

A. pardalisis is endemic to South Africa (Lambiris 1989a, 1994). Branch and Braack (1987) found that within South Africa the species live in isolated populations (Text from Minter et al., 2004, © SI/MAB Biodiversity Program).

Author(s): Burger, M.
Rights holder(s): Burger, M.

Ecology

Habitat and Ecology

A. pardalis inhabits grassy or open bushveld areas, parks and gardens in the Thicket, Grassland and Savanna biomes, and uses large, permanent water bodies for breeding (Text from Minter et al., 2004, © SI/MAB Biodiversity Program).

Author(s): Burger, M.
Rights holder(s): Burger, M.

Associations

Captive specimens feed readily on crickets, grasshoppers, small mice and lizards (Channing 2001). It is presumed that they feed on a variety of arthropods in the wild (Text from Minter et al., 2004, © SI/MAB Biodiversity Program).

Author(s): Burger, M.
Rights holder(s): Burger, M.

Life History

Reproduction

A. pardalis is a late-winter or spring breeder (Text from Minter et al., 2004, © SI/MAB Biodiversity Program).

Author(s): Burger, M.
Rights holder(s): Burger, M.

Advertisement Call

A. pardalis choruses are typically heard from August to September, but calling is also recorded from November through to January (Burger 1997). The toad calls while floating in the water grasping emergent vegetation with one hand (Text from Minter et al., 2004, © SI/MAB Biodiversity Program).

Author(s): Burger, M.
Rights holder(s): Burger, M.

Conservation

IUCN Red List Category and Justification of Conservation Status

A. pardalis is assigned to the category Least Concern (Harrison et al. 2001; Minter et al., 2004).

Author(s): Burger, M.
Rights holder(s): Burger, M.

Threats

Although it may still be common at some localities, the impact of agricultural and urban development has led to fragmentation and degradation of this species’ habitat (Text from Minter et al., 2004, © SI/MAB Biodiversity Program).

Author(s): Burger, M.
Rights holder(s): Burger, M.

Conservation Actions and Management

It is found in many national parks and other protected areas (Minter et al., 2004).

Author(s): Burger, M.
Rights holder(s): Burger, M.

Taxonomy

  • Bufo regularis pardalis Hewitt, 1935 (synonym)
  • Bufo pardalis — Poynton, 1964 (synonym)
  • Amietophrynus pardalis — Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006 (synonym)

References

[Anonymous] (2004).  Atlas and Red Data Book of the Frogs of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. (MinterL., BurgerM., HarrisonJ., BraackH H., BishopP J., KloepferD., Ed.).SI/MAB Series. 9, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.
Branch, W. R., & Braack H. H. (1987).  Reptiles and amphibians of the Addo Elephant National Park. Koedoe. 61-111.
Burger, M. (1997).  Eastern Cape frogs: Part 1 - the toads. Naturalist. 41(1), 9-12.
Channing, A. (2001).  Amphibians of Central and Southern Africa. Comstock books in herpetology. x, 470 p., [24] p. of plates. Ithaca, N.Y.: Comstock Pub. Associates.
Harrison, J. A., Burger M., Minter L. R., de Villiers A. L., Baard E. H. W., Scott E., et al. (2001).  Conservation Assessment and Management Plan for Southern African Frogs: Final Report.. Apple Valley, MN: IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group.
Lambiris, A. J. L. (1989).  A review of the amphibians of Natal. Lammergeyer. 1-212.
Lambiris, A. J. L. (1994).  Laryngeal and buccopharyngeal morphology of some South African Bufonidae: New datasets for anuran taxonomy. Annals of the Natal Museum. 261-307.